School-age services recognize the changing environment and developmental tasks of that time period. As children enter school, a growing amount of time and effort is devoted to formal learning and the development of specific cognitive, social, and emotional skills. Children also gain the ability to make appraisals of themselves relative to those around them while gaining insight into how cultural factors influence their identity when it comes to gender, race, socioeconomic status, orientation and other areas. Family life and parental relationship continue to be fundamental but engagement with peers and desires for independence become increasingly important for many children. Reflecting these principles, services for children of this age and their families balance the need to work with children as individuals with the importance of engaging the child’s environment toward the goal of maximizing a child’s positive trajectory.